Ruling

Why was Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ burial delayed?

There is no dispute that the burial of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the best man who ever lived and greatest of all the prophets, was delayed. However, confusion may arise over the reasons for this delay and how to view the Sahabah’s actions who collectively consented to this delay. When answering this question it’s important we base our answer on textual evidence and not cite reasons from our minds.

  1. How long was the burial delayed?

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ died on Monday and was buried on Tuesday and people prayed over him individually with no one leading them.

Some people said that he would be buried near the mimbar, and others said that he would be buried in al-Baqi. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq came and said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah  say, ‘No prophet was ever buried except in the place where he died.’” So a grave was dug for him there. When he was about to be washed they wished to take off his shirt but they heard a voice saying “Don’t take off his shirt,” so they did not take off his shirt and he was washed with it on.[1]

Ibn Katheer said, “What is famously related from the majority of scholars is that the Prophet  died on Monday and was buried on Tuesday night.”[2]

Therefore the burial was delayed by approximately two days and two nights.

  1. What were the Sahabah doing Monday instead of burying the Prophet ?

The Sahabah were in a state of shock and denial when the beloved Prophet ﷺ died.

Ibn Rajab said, “When the Messenger of Allah  died, the Muslims became shocked, bewildered and confused. Some of them were stunned and became perplexed; others sat down and were not even able to stand; others lost their ability to speak; and yet others were in complete denial, refusing to believe that the Prophet  had really died (an among the last group was Umar ibn Al-Khattab).”[3]

Umar ibn Al-Khattab began to threaten anyone who claimed that the Prophet ﷺ had died. Umar said, “He has not died, but rather he has gone to his Lord, just as Musa ibn Umran (as) went, remaining absent from his people for forty nights, after which he (as) returned to them. By Allah, the Messenger of Allah  will indeed return to us, just as Musa (as) returned to his people, and he  will cut off the hands and legs of those men who claimed that he  had died.”[4]

Abu Bakr then came to the Masjid and visited the Prophet ﷺ in the house of his daughter Aisha.

Aisha narrated: Abu Bakr came riding his horse from his dwelling place in As-Sunh. He got down from it, entered the Mosque and did not speak with anybody till he came to me and went direct to the Prophet, who was covered with a marked blanket. Abu Bakr uncovered his face. He knelt down and kissed him and then started weeping and said, “My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Prophet! Allah will not combine two deaths on you. You have died the death which was written for you.”[5]

When Abu Bakr said, “Allah will not combine two deaths on you” he was refuting Umar who was claiming that the Prophet ﷺ would come back to life. Abu Bakr knew that, even if that was the case the Prophet ﷺ would still have to die again which meant that he ﷺ would have to die a total of two deaths; and Abu Bakr understood that the Prophet ﷺ enjoyed too high of a ranking with Allah سبحانه وتعالى for that to happen to him.[6]

Abu Bakr then went back in to the Masjid and addressed the people consoling them and correcting the incorrect thoughts that had arisen.

Narrated Abu Salama from Ibn Abbas: Abu Bakr came out and Umar was addressing the people. Abu Bakr told him to sit down but Umar refused. Abu Bakr again told him to sit down but Umar again refused. Then Abu Bakr recited the Tashah-hud (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger ﷺ) and the people attended to Abu Bakr and left Umar. Abu Bakr said, “Amma ba’du, whoever among you worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah says:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ ۚ أَفَإِنْ مَاتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِكُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئًا ۗ وَسَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ

“Muhammad is only a Messenger and he has been preceded by other Messengers. If he were to die or be killed, would you turn on your heels? Those who turn on their heels do not harm Allah in any way. Allah will recompense the thankful.”

(Al-Imran, 3:144)

The narrator added, “By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before untill Abu Bakr recited it and then whoever heard it, started reciting it.”[7]

When the Sahabah knew for certain that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had died the Ansar gathered in the saqeefah of Banu Saa’idah and the Muhajireen gathered elsewhere with Abu Bakr. Both groups had the same purpose which was to choose the next Khaleefah from among themselves. Before they arrived at a decision however the Muhajireen remembered their brothers from the Ansaar, and they said to one another, “Let us go to our brothers from the Ansaar, for they have the right to help us arrive at a decision regarding this matter.”[8]

Umar ibn Al-Khattab said: “Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance (Bay’ah) to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given, are to be supported, lest they both should be killed. And no doubt after the death of the Prophet ﷺ we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the saqeefah (portico or courtyard) of Bani Sa`da. `Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the Muhajireen gathered with Abu Bakr.”[9]

Although Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zubair al-Awwam didn’t participate in contracting Abu Bakr as Khaleefah they both gave the Bay’ah and never voiced any opposition to the action of the Muhajireen and Ansar in delaying the burial of the Prophet ﷺ in favour of choosing the next Khaleefah.

Ali and az-Zubayr said: “The only thing that disappointed us was that we were not consulted, but we believe that Abu Bakr is the most qualified of the people for it (Khilafah) after the Messenger of Allah .”[10]

Umar continues: I said to Abu Bakr, ‘Let’s go to these Ansari brothers of ours.’ So we set out seeking them, and when we approached them, two pious men of theirs met us and informed us of the final decision of the Ansar, and said, ‘O group of Muhajireen (emigrants)! Where are you going?’ We replied, ‘We are going to these Ansari brothers of ours.’ They said to us, ‘You shouldn’t go near them. Carry out whatever we have already decided.’ I said, ‘By Allah, we will go to them.’

And so we proceeded until we reached them at the saqeefah of Bani Sa`da. Behold! There was a man sitting amongst them and wrapped in something. I asked, ‘Who is that man?’ They said, ‘He is Sa`d bin ‘Ubada.’ I asked, ‘What is wrong with him?‘ They said, ‘He is sick.’

After we sat for a while, the Ansar’s speaker said, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,’ and praising Allah as He deserved, he added, ‘To proceed, we are Allah’s Ansar (helpers) and the majority of the Muslim army, while you, the emigrants, are a small group and some people among you came with the intention of preventing us from practicing this matter (of caliphate) and depriving us of it.’

When the speaker had finished, I intended to speak as I had prepared a speech which I liked and which I wanted to deliver in the presence of Abu Bakr, and I used to avoid provoking him. So, when I wanted to speak, Abu Bakr said, ‘Wait a while.’ I disliked to make him angry. So Abu Bakr himself gave a speech, and he was wiser and more patient than I. By Allah, he never missed a sentence that I liked in my own prepared speech, but he said the like of it or better than it spontaneously.

After a pause he said, ‘O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of Caliphate) is only for the Quraish as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish. And then Abu Bakr held my hand and Abu Ubada bin `Abdullah’s hand who was sitting amongst us. I hated nothing of what he had said except that proposal, for by Allah, I would rather have my neck chopped off as expiator for a sin than become the ruler of a nation, one of whose members is Abu Bakr, unless at the time of my death my own-self suggests something I don’t feel at present.’

And then one of the Ansar said, ‘I am the pillar on which the camel with a skin disease (eczema) rubs itself to satisfy the itching (i.e., I am a noble), and I am as a high class palm tree! O Quraish. There should be one ruler from us and one from you.’

Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, ‘O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.’ He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the Pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa`d bin Ubada (whom Al-Ansar wanted to make a ruler). One of the Ansar said, ‘You have killed Sa`d bin Ubada.’ I replied, ‘Allah has killed Sa`d bin Ubada.’

`Umar added, “By Allah, apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the Pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble. So if any person gives the pledge of allegiance to somebody (to become a Khaleefah) without consulting the other Muslims, then the one he has selected should not be granted allegiance, lest both of them should be killed.”[11]

  1. What is the Bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) and when was Abu Bakr given Bay’ah?

The Khaleefah is not a King or dictator who imposes his authority on the people through coercion and force. The Khaleefah’s authority to rule must be given willingly by the Muslims through the Islamic ruling contract known as Bay’ah. Without this Bay’ah the Khaleefah cannot rule.

There are two types of Bay’ah. The Bay’ah of Contract (Bay’ah In’iqaad) and the Bay’ah of Obedience (Bay’ah Taa’ah).

The Bay’ah contract is between two parties – the Khaleefah and the Muslims. The principle conditions of the Bay’ah are that the Khaleefah fulfils the seven mandatory conditions of his post and implements Shari’ah upon the citizens of the state.

The Bay’ah of Contract (Bay’ah In’iqaad) is Fard Kifiyya (collective obligation). It is the right of all Muslims to participate in contracting the Khaleefah. However, it is not obligatory for them to practice this right as long as some from among the Ummah are engaged in contracting the Khaleefah and hence the kifiyya is met. Usually those involved in contracting of the Bay’ah are a representative group known as the Ahlul Hali Wal Aqd (influential Muslims) who represents the opinion of the Muslims at large. This is why only some of the senior Sahabah from among the Ansar and Muhajireen participated in choosing the next Khaleefah. These included Abu Bakr, Umar bin al-Khattab and Abu Ubaydah bin al-Jarrah from the Muhajireen. Abu Bakr and Umar were the wazirs (ruling assistants) in the time of the Prophet ﷺ. The leaders of the Ansar tribes – Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj and were also present. These included Sa’d bin Ubadah and Bashir ibn Sa’d, leaders of Al-Khazraj and Usaid ibn Hudhayr, leader of Al-Aws.

Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zubair al-Awwam did not participate but as discussed earlier agreed with Abu Bakr’s appointment and gave him the Bay’ah of obedience at the earliest opportunity.

Abu Bakr’s Bay’ah on Monday afternoon was the Bay’ah of Contract given by a small group from the Ahlul Hali Wal Aqd who represented the views of the wider Muslim Ummah.

When Sa’eed ibn Zaid was asked, “When was Abu Bakr confirmed by the people?” he said, “The day on which the Messenger of Allah  died; they disliked for even a part of a day to pass by without them being united as a group (with a leader to rule over them).”[12]

Once the Bay’ah is contracted to the Khaleefah then the Muslims must fulfil their side of the contract which is obedience to the Khaleefah. The Bay’ah then becomes a Bay’ah of obedience for the rest of the Muslims. This is Fard ‘Ayn (individual obligation). After contracting the Bay’ah to Abu Bakr on Monday the Muslims of Medina gathered in the Masjid the next day to give him the Bay’ah of obedience.

Anas bin Malik Narrated: That he heard `Umar’s second speech he delivered when he sat on the pulpit on the day following the death of the Prophet ﷺ `Umar recited the Tashahhud while Abu Bakr was silent. `Umar said, “I wish that Allah’s Messenger  had outlived all of us, i.e., had been the last (to die). But if Muhammad is dead, Allah nevertheless has kept the light amongst you from which you can receive the same guidance as Allah guided Muhammad with that. And Abu Bakr is the companion of Allah’s Messenger  He is the second of the two in the cave. He is the most entitled person among the Muslims to manage your affairs. Therefore get up and swear allegiance to him.” Some people had already taken the oath of allegiance (Bay’ah) to him in the saqeefah of Bani Sa`ida but the oath of allegiance taken by the public was taken at the pulpit. I heard `Umar saying to Abu Bakr on that day. “Please ascend the pulpit,” and kept on urging him till he ascended the pulpit whereupon, all the people swore allegiance to him.[13]

The inhabitants of Medina pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr directly in the Masjid and placed their hands on his hand. Meanwhile the inhabitants of Makkah and At-Taaif made their pledges to Abu Bakr’s governors (wulah).[14]

This Bay’ah by the Muslim masses on Tuesday would have taken some time to complete. Once it was finished then the burial preparations and funeral prayer for the Prophet ﷺ were organised.

  1. The Sahabah collectively agreed (ijma) to prioritise appointing a Khaleefah over burying the Prophet 

Burying the dead person as soon as possible is a collective obligation (fard al-kifiya) on the Muslim community. Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger ﷺ as saying: “Hasten at a funeral.”[15]

Since the Sahabah collectively agreed on delaying this obligation means that they were engaged in another obligation which takes precedence in sharia over the burial. Individually the Sahabah can make mistakes but not collectively when they agree on a sharia rule. This agreement of the Sahabah on a sharia rule is called ijma as-Sahabah (consensus of the companions).

If the Sahabah after the death of the Prophet ﷺ were to agree unanimously upon a sharia rule without any dissent among them, in the absence of a ruling from the Quran and Sunnah, then this agreement is considered to be a sharia evidence. This agreement must have been based upon some teaching of the Prophet ﷺ of which they all knew, but which did not reach us directly in the form of a Hadith. Therefore, Ijma as Sahabah is an indication of Sunnah itself.

Al-Haythami (d.1405CE) said, “It is known that the Sahabah consented that selecting the Imam after the end of the era of Prophethood was an obligation (Wajib). Indeed they made it more important than the other obligations whilst they were busy with it over the burial of the Prophet.”[16]

The Sahabah were the group who had the best access to the revelation and were most mindful of holding fast to the revelation in their actions. Their ljma is a proof for two reasons. Firstly, Allah سبحانه وتعالى praises them as a community not just individuals.

وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

“The forerunners – the first of the Muhajireen and the Ansar – and those who have followed them in doing good: Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. He has prepared Gardens for them with rivers flowing under them, remaining in them timelessly, for ever and ever. That is the great victory.”

(At-Tawba, 9:100)

This compliment is given to the Sahabah (Muhajireen and Ansar) for the sole reason of being Sahabah. However, the compliment for others is due to the fact that they followed the footsteps of the Sahabah (“and those who have followed THEM”). This means that the original compliment is for the Sahabah. The followers are not complimented except for following the Sahabah.  Therefore, it can be concluded that the meaning of the Ayah is confined to the Sahabah only. Any group of people whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى complements in such a manner, the truthfulness of what they agree upon is affirmed.

Secondly, doubt in their trustworthiness leads to doubt in Islam. The Sahabah were the generation that transmitted the Qur’an and narrated the Ahadith. Our entire Deen has been conveyed to us through this group. This group was the means by which Allah سبحانه وتعالى chose the Qur’an to be compiled and preserved. Allah سبحانه وتعالى has promised to preserve this scripture through them. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,

لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ ۖ تَنْزِيلٌ مِنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

“Falsehood cannot reach it from before it or behind it – it is a revelation from One who is All-Wise, Praiseworthy.”

(Al-Fussilat, 41:42) [17]

  1. Why weren’t other obligations such as salah delayed?

There are two types of obligations. These are Fard ‘ayn (individual obligation) and Fard kifaya (collective obligation).

The fard ‘ayn (individual obligation) is the obligation which must be undertaken by every mukallaf (legally responsible person) by himself. If a Muslim abandons this obligation, then he would not be free of the sin, even if all the Muslims had undertaken it. If he undertook the obligation while all the Muslims neglected it, then he would be free of the sin and blame before Allah سبحانه وتعالى. Examples of individual obligations are praying, fasting, zakah and hajj.[18]

As for the fard kifaya (collective obligation), what is required is that these obligations must be performed, irrespective of who has undertaken them from the Muslims. They are not required from every individual by himself. Rather what is required is that they are enacted. They may be enacted via a few or via many. It they are not enacted, then all the Muslims will be sinful until they are enacted. Otherwise, the sin will be removed only from those who struggled and endeavoured to establish them, and who were involved in this struggle seriously.[19]

Undertaking the individual obligations has Shar’i priorities. When the Muslim is able to do all his individual and collective obligations, then this is what is required, and he has no problems. However, if any clash occurs, then performing the individual obligations takes priority over the collective obligations. If a clash occurs between the individual obligations then it will be the Shar’a, and not the mind, which laid down the priority for some over others. Thus, the providing of nafaqa (maintenance) for the family takes precedence over payment of debt, and the payment of debt takes precedence over paying for the Hajj. The fasting of Ramadan takes precedence over the fast of nadhr (solemn promise). The Jum’ah prayer takes precedence over keeping one’s promise and so on and so forth.

If a clash occurs between the collective obligations where they cannot all be established, then again the Shar’a, and not the mind, laid down the priority of some over others. Here the field is wide and complicated. This is because there are many collective obligations; some are difficult and very costly, while others require great effort and time. There are so many, that the Muslim cannot possibly undertake them all. Therefore, it becomes imperative for him to undertake some at the expense of others. What he undertakes and what he leaves cannot be on the basis of whims, rational evaluation or personal choice, rather it is based on legal preference, where the Shar’a decides the priority. This is taken from the qaraa’in (Shar’ee indications) that clarify its importance.[20]

Praying salah is an individual obligation and therefore the Sahabah would not have delayed salah in favour of continuing their discussions in the saqeefah. However, burying the Prophet ﷺ and appointing a head of state (Khaleefah) are collective obligations. The ijma as-Sahabah shows us that appointing a Khaleefah takes precedence over the burial. In addition to the obligation of burying the Prophet ﷺ there were other important collective obligations which were not being fulfilled such as sending the army of Usama to fight the Romans and dealing with the apostates who were gathering to attack Medina itself and wipe out the Muslims. These obligations are dependent on the Islamic State which again shows the priority of appointing a Khaleefah within the collective obligations.

  1. Was delaying the burial due to the volume of people coming to pray the Prophet’s  janazah?

Once the Bay’ah was concluded to Abu Bakr on Tuesday then burial preparations were made and the funeral prayer (salatul-janazah) organised.

Ibn Ishaq said, “When Abu Bakr had received the pledge of allegiance, the people began preparing on the Tuesday for the burial of the Messenger of Allah.”[21]

If an ordinary Muslim had died then the funeral prayer would have been led by an Imam in one congregation (jamat). This would have been completed quickly. However, due to the greatness of the Prophet ﷺ the prayer was organised differently with no Imam and with small groups of Muslims entering the house of Aisha and praying over the Prophet ﷺ individually.

Imam al Shafi’i said regarding the funeral prayer without an imam: “… and that was because of the greatness of the station of the Messenger of Allah  – may my father and mother be sacrificed for him!- and for the [companions] striving amidst each other [to ensure] that no person be given the position of imam of the prayer upon him.”[22]

On the Tuesday there would have been a delay due to the huge number of Muslims reading the funeral prayer individually in small groups in the house of Aisha. But the delay from Monday to Tuesday was not due to this because as Ibn Kathir states, “It is not up to anyone to say, this [the reasoning behind praying individually] was because they had no Imam’, because we have explained above that they only began preparing him  for burial after completion of the pledge of allegiance made to Abu Bakr (ra).”[23]

So the burial preparations and the funeral prayer were delayed until the Bay’ah was completed on the Tuesday and therefore the huge volume of people praying over the Prophet ﷺ is not the main reason for delaying the burial for two days and two nights.

  1. If the Prophet’s  burial was delayed by 2 days and 2 nights why is the maximum time limit for appointing a Khaleefah 3 days and their nights?

The evidence restricting the time limit for appointing a Khaleefah to 3 days and their nights is taken from the consensus of the Sahabah over the action of Umar bin al-Khattab when he established a shura council to elect the next Khaleefah after him. Umar said to Suhaib ar-Rumi: “Lead the people in prayer for three days and put together ‘Ali, ‘Uthman, Az-Zubair, Sa’d, Abdur Rahman Bin ‘Auf and Talhah if he returns. Stand over their heads and if five of them come together (in agreement) and choose one man whilst one refuses then smash his head or strike his head with the sword…”

This was related by Ibn Shabbah in ‘Taareekh Al-Madeenah’, Tabari in his ‘Taareekh’ (History) and Ibn Sa’d transmitted similar to this in ‘At-Tabaqaat Al-Kubraa’. This was in spite of them (shura council) being from the people of Shuraa and from the senior Sahaabah. This occurred in front of the eyes and ears of the Sahaabah and it has not been transmitted that there was somebody who opposed or denounced this. As such it represents an Ijma of the Sahabah upon it not being permitted for the Muslims to be without a Khaleefah for more than three days and its accompanying nights. And the Ijmaa’ of the Sahaabah is a Daleel (source of evidence) just like the Kitaab and the Sunnah.[24]

Conclusion

The Ijma as-Sahabah over the delay of the Prophet’s ﷺ burial is an evidence on the obligation of establishing the Khilafah. This is not the only evidence but supplements those found in the Qur’an and Sunnah and derived from the shariah principle, “That which is necessary to accomplish a Wajib is itself a Wajib.” These evidences are well known and discussed elsewhere.[25]

Notes

[1] Malik Muwatta. Book 16, Hadith 549. http://www.sunnah.com/urn/405460

[2] al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah (5/237) and Saheeh As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah, p.728

[3] Lataaif Al-Ma’aarif, p.114

[4] As-seerah an-Nabawiyyah by Abu Shohbah (2/594)

[5] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 1241. http://www.sunnah.com/bukhari/23/5

[6] Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq,’ p.202

[7] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 1242. http://www.sunnah.com/bukhari/23/5

[8] Asrul-Khilaafah Ar-Raashidah, by Al-Umaree p.40

[9] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 6830. http://www.sunnah.com/bukhari/86/57

[10] al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, 6/341. Its chain is hasan. Khilafat Abi Bakr, p.67

[11] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 6830. http://www.sunnah.com/bukhari/86/57

[12] Abaatel Yajibu An-Tamuhhu Minat-Taareekh, by Ibraaheem Shu’oot (p.101)

[13] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 7219. http://www.sunnah.com/bukhari/93/79

[14] Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq,’ p.250

[15] Sahih Muslim, Hadith 944. http://www.sunnah.com/muslim/11/66

[16] Al-Haythami, ‘Sawaa’iq ul-haraqah, p.17

[17] Abu Tariq Hilal, Abu Ismael Al-Beirawi, ‘Understanding Usul al-Fiqh,’ Revival Publications, p.74

[18] Ahmad Mahmoud, ‘The Dawah to Islam and the Method to re-establish the Islamic State,’ Revival Publications, p.42

[19] Ibid, p.43

[20] Ibid, p.45

[21] Ibn Kathir, As-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 5/371

[22] al-Shafi’i, Kitab al-Umm

[23] Ibn Kathir, As-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 5/379

[24] Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah, 4 June 2013, http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/the-khilafah/khilafah/16350-qaa-what-is-the-evidence-for-specifying-a-time-period-for-the-election-of-the-khaleefah

[25] The Re-establishment of the Khilafah is an obligation upon all Muslims. http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/the-khilafah/issues/597-the-re-establishment-of-the-khilafah-is-an-obligation-upon-all-muslims

 

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