Allah (Most High) says: يا أَيُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنوا أَوفوا بِالعُقودِ “O you who believe! Fulfil your covenants.” (Al-Maaida, 5:2) The alif lam on the word Al-Uqud is alif lam of jinsiyah (genus) which means it includes all types of contracts and covenants. According to Imam Al Raghib Al Isfahani, the Uqud (covenants) referred to in this verse, ‘are of three kinds: 1- the covenants between Allah and man, i.e. man’s obligations towards Allah, 2- between man and his own soul, 3- and between the individual and his fellow men So this command includes ruling contracts such as citizenship and treaties. Throughout Islamic history the Caliphate fulfilled its covenants and treaties during peace and war, and the Islamic army was known for its exemplary conduct. Islam could not have spread so quickly if those carrying Islam were treacherous and committed atrocities.
وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّمَا نُمْلِي لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا نُمْلِي لَهُمْ لِيَزْدَادُوا إِثْمًا ۚ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ “Those who disbelieve should not imagine that the extra time We grant to them is good for them. We only allow them more time so they will increase in evildoing. They will have a humiliating punishment.” (Al-Imran, 3:178)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّـهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.” (An-Nisaa, 4:59)
In June 2014, an armed group calling itself the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (known as ISIL or ISIS) declared the establishment of a caliphate and proclaimed its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, a caliph. This proclamation was rejected by the overwhelming majority of the world’s Muslims.
The Islamic Personality is a balanced personality. It is not extreme and it must contain both fear and hope for a believer to realise their full potential in worshipping the Creator Allah سبحانه وتعالى. Ibn al-Qayyim said: “The heart, in its journey to Allah سبحانه وتعالى is like that of a bird: love is its head, and fear and hope are its two wings. When the head and two wings are sound, the bird flies gracefully; if the head is severed, the bird dies; if the bird loses one of its wings, it then becomes a target for every hunter or predator.”
The Caliphate’s judiciary is responsible for issuing judgments that are enforced by the state. It settles disputes between people, prevents whatever may harm the rights of the community and also settles disputes between people and any person who is part of the government whether this is the Caliph, his cabinet, civil servants or any other official.1
This is a common claim found in the history books of the orientalists such as Sir William Muir who wrote many books on the history of the Caliphate and Sir Hamilton Gibb who is famous for translating ibn Batuta’s travel books. These books are on the reading lists of most Arabic degrees at western institutions such as SOAS where Gibb did his MA in Arabic in 1922.